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Has the CEO really changed or is it business as usual?

Post Date: 08 - Dec - 2023

Task details and instructions:

Firstly, go to the following link: Has the CEO really changed or is it business as usual?


1. Scroll down and listen to the 4-minute video by Professor Ed Schein talking about the main issues within organisations today – the increasing interdependence between bosses and subordinates, and the need for better upward communication and a different style of leadership at the top.

2. Read the rest of the article by Paul Levy (Senior Researcher in Innovation Management at University of Brighton) where he discusses CEO behaviour.

3. With Professor Schein’s thoughts in mind, you should engage in additional reading and research in order to write an essay of 3,000 words that critically discusses the following statement:

“Upward communication and senior leader behaviour – the possibilities and challenges of developing an inclusive, open culture within a multinational enterprise.”

Your answer should draw on and make reference to relevant theory in order to address the following points.

  • The way that MNEs are changing and the leadership challenges associated with this (20 marks) – 600 words
  • The style/s of leadership more likely to facilitate the open culture that Professor Ed Schein suggests is needed (30 marks) – 900 words
  • Other factors within MNEs that may hinder the development of such an open culture (30 marks) – 900 words
  • What might happen if more distributed forms of leadership were to emerge (20 marks) – 600 words

Useful Resources

Via the University of Salford Library:


  • ‘The Leadership Quarterly’, ‘Leadership’, ‘Administrative Science Quarterly’, ‘Organization’,’ Organization Science’, ‘The Academy of Management Journal’, ‘The Academy of Management Review’.

Journal Articles:

  • House, R., Javidan, M. &Dorfman, P. (2001). Project GLOBE: An Introduction.Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50 (4), 489-505.
  • Javidan, M. & House, R. (2001). Cultural Acumen for the Global Manager: Lessons from Project GLOBE.Organizational Dynamics, 29 (4), 289-305.
  • Javidan, M.&Dastmalchian, A. (2009). Managerial Implications of the GLOBE Project: A Study of 62 Societies.Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 47 (1), 41-58.

On the Internet:

  • Hofstede’sweblinks on national and organizational culture. https://www.hofstede-insights.com/

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