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Unit 8: Promote and implement health and safety in health and social care by Academia Support UK

Post Date: 23 - Feb - 2022

Unit 4222-306 Promote and implement health and safety in health and social care

Unit 8: Promote and implement health and safety in health and social care

Outcome 1

  1. Identify legislation relating to healthy and safety in health or social care work setting
  • Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (MHSWR) 1999
  • Reporting of Injury, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995
  • The Health and Safety at Work Act (HSWA) 1974
  • Food Safety Act 1990 and the Food Hygiene Regulations 2006
  • Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 2002
  • Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations (PPE) 1992
  • Manual Handling Operations Regulations (MHOR) 1992
  • Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 
  • Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981
  1. Explain the main points of health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer

Health and safety policies and procedures set out what must be done to maintain a safe place of work. For example all equipment must be safe to use and tested regularly so risks to health and safety are minimised. It is also important that staff is trained and supervised regularly. Health and safety policies and procedures clearly explain procedures - how to reporting of faulty equipment, who must be reported to and where this must be recorded.

For example: There is procedure in my workplace about Food Safety - follow by Food Safety Act 1990 - which one explain me how to working with food to avoid any risk of poisoning and spread infections. In my workplace I can also find first aid procedures describe and explain how manage first aid and when/how emergency services should be contacted.

  1. Analyse the main health and safety responsibilities of:
  • Self - I have to monitor the workplace practices. My responsibility is minimise any risk of danger and harm to service users, and also myself. I have to report and record any safety concerns. I have to attend all trainings. I should follow by policies and practice safe procedures. Use any work items correctly. I have a responsibility to stay up to date with health and safety training and not carry out any task in which I have not been trained.   
  • The employer or manager - Manager should be sure that every member of staff is aware of their responsibilities with regard Health and Safety Policy. Manager ensure that every member of staff are working with safe methods and equipment in place to avoid injury or damage. Manager should assess and minimise risks, provide health and safety training, supervision and set up emergency procedures. Their responsibility is provided protective clothing and special equipment. They report injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences to the appropriate authorities.
  • Others in the work setting - all other people who visit service users - nurses, relatives, doctors, agency workers etc. should follow all Health and Safety Policies, follow instructions for use any equipment and report any concerns.

Unit 8: Promote and implement health and safety in health and social care

  1. Identify specific tasks in the work setting that should not be carried out without special training.
  • Using equipment - hoist and slings,
  • Moving and handling procedures,
  • Administering medications,
  • Waste disposal,
  • Food handling and preparation,
  • Cleaning and use chemical substances.

Outcome 3

  1. Describe different types of accidents and sudden illness that may occur in own work setting

In my work setting could be different types of accidents and sudden illness that could occur: back injuries (wrong manual handling techniques), slips and falls (wet floor), burns or poisoning (chemical substances, disinfectant materials), stomach upset (food poisoning), behaviour etc.

For example:

Bath time. Service user was not a patient person, so wanted to be rush all the time. After bath, service user came out with bath too soon - he did not listen carer’s instruction and finally he felt down onto floor. The reason his falling was wet floor. We could find some bruises all over his body and pain in his back.

Bed time. Service user used to ask client to give them four sleeping tablets. They allow to take only three, but new carer did not check MAR sheet properly and listened to individual and gave four. Finally service users had stomach bleeding and was taken to hospital.

Aggression. Accidents caused by violence and aggression. There are many reasons why violence may occur: frustration, anxiety, feeling powerless, drugs, medical conditions etc. can lead to lack of understanding. Health and Safety Executive (HSE) report that health and social care workers can be as much as four times more likely to experience accidents caused by violence and aggression that any other workers.

  1. Explain procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur

Accident and sudden illness could be because something goes wrong. Sometimes it is carer fault, sometimes it is service user fault. Like a care worker I have to aware of any possible accidents and sudden illness. If I am not sure what to do - better to ask about advice senior member of staff. I have to record (with date, place, time and sign) and report any accidents and other important situations. I am trained so I understand that only trained staff can give first aid and I must call for help immediately if something happen. I always stay with my service user until some help will come in - make the area safe and private as possible.

Certain types of accidents, incidents and diseases need to be reported to a government body under RIDDOR regulations.

Outcome 4

  1. Explain own role in supporting others to follow practices that reduce the spread of infection

My role as a care worker in supporting other to reduce the spread of infection is encourage and prompt them to wash their hands. I was trained so I know how to wash my hands properly and I have to explain my service users how important is for their safe. Washing hands is the main point, but I also have to remember to use gloves and aprons and change them every task. I should follow by policies and procedures for health and safety regarding infection control. In my workplace I can find procedure about hand hygiene. It is not only about washing hands but also:

  • Fingernails should be short
  • Rings should not be worn
  • Watches, bracelets should not be worn
  • Sleeves should be rolled up to the elbow
  • Cuts should be covered with a waterproof dressing

Outcome 5

  1. Explain main points of legislation that relates to moving and handling
  2. Explain principles for safe moving and handling

The Manual Handling Regulations 1992 (amended 2002) were created to reduce the number of injuries form moving and handling activities. The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) 1998 were introduced to minimise risks from lifting equipment including hoists and slings. As a care worker I should understand my responsibility about moving. It is important to read and follow the risk assessment and complete only these tasks for which I have been trained for. I have to be sure that all equipment is safe to use and I make all checks before hand. I have to know:

  • What am I doing?
  • If am I physically fit enough to carry out all tasks?
  • If is safe to do these tasks, enough room?

If I do not know equipment I cannot use this and I sould not to start any task. I have to prepare and check environment. If I am working with colleague make sure that they know what to do. I have to remember about right position of my body and feet. Make sure that feet are in a walking position. Always bend the knees and make sure that back is not twisting. Make sure that you and your colleague are moving together. Keep good posture all the times.

Unit 8: Promote and implement health and safety in health and social care

Outcome 6

  1. Describe types of hazardous substances that may be found in the work setting

Hazardous substances can be found in many workplaces and include any substance that could cause ill health if a person comes into contact with it. They come in many forms including:

  • Liquids, cleaning materials
  • Solids, medications
  • Dust, any dust in substantial amounts
  • Fumes and gases
  • Biological organisms  

Outcome 7

  1. Describe practices that prevent fires from: starting and spreading

Practices that prevent fires from starting include: use smoke alarms, ensuring all unused electrical equipment is unplugged and gas appliances have been checked.

Practices that prevent fires from spreading include: keep fire doors closed, not open windows, any flammable materials should be kept and stored properly.

  1. Explain emergency procedures to be followed in the event of a fire in the work setting

If I discover a fire in my workplace it is important that I aware of the procedures I must follow. I have to be sure that I follow by organisational policy and do not put myself and anyone else at risk. The main point - do not panic, stay calm. Sound the alarm and call the fire brigade (999, be prepared to give them details about my name, address, nature and location of fire, needs of people in building), inform others about the fire. Service users who are in bed should remain in their rooms with the door shut and await rescue by the fire brigade. Close all doors behind you and do not use lifts. Do not obstruct entrances. 

Outcome 8

3. Explain the importance of ensuring that others are aware of own whereabouts

Other people, like supervisor or manager, must know of my whereabouts, because of the nature of the job, lone working does carry some risks. So supervisor should know where I am because:

  • I can suddenly become ill
  • Risk associated with violence during darkness
  • Violence from people using the service
  • Car accidents
  • Accidents due to moving and handling

Outcome 9

  1. Describe common signs and indicator of stress

Stress is “the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures and demands placed on them”, according to the Health and Safety Executive.

All of the people experience pressure from time to time. If we cannot cope some tasks or situations this can lead to stress. There are some signs, symptoms and indicators of stress:

  • Memory problems, difficulty in concentrating, poor judgement, focusing on negative aspects, constant worrying - cognitive symptoms
  • Irritability or being short tempered, agitation, inability to relax, feeling overwhelmed, a sense of loneliness and isolation, feeling depression or unhappiness - emotional symptoms
  • Aches, pains, diarrhea or constipation, nausea, dizziness, chest pain, frequent colds - physical symptoms
  • Eating more or less, sleeping too much or too little, using alcohol to relax, nail biting - behavioural symptoms
  1. Describe signs that indicate own stress

I can say when I am stressed I have a lot of symptoms from group above. It is depend on situation. When I am really worry about something I am still focusing on negative aspects only - forgot about positive side of situation. I also feel real pain in my chest, feel impatient and sleep less than I used to. This how I feel always lead to feel upset and being short tempered. Sometimes stress could change our activity and it is possible to have some trouble to do own job properly. In my job role - like a care worker - it is important to understand different symptoms of own stress, it is useful for understanding my service user’s  behaviour and notice that they feel stressed. It also important to understand when I feel stressed that help me to control myself. I should do everything to my well-being does not affect the value of my work. I noticed that sometimes, there are no clear causes of stress. Some people naturally feel more frustrated, depressed than others, which can cause them to feel stressed more often. Like a care worker I should try to understand, so listen my service users and never underestimate their feeling and problems even if I feel that are trivial. 

  1. Analyse factors that tend to trigger own stress

The first step in managing stress is recognising the things that cause stress in our life. Every person experience stress in the different way. There are many factors can trigger stress. In my life I can say that I met:

  • Money worries - when you feel that you lost control about the home budget/money
  • Job issues - when you not happy about the job which one you have go, when you feel that some job could be done in a better way or when you going for interview, you worry if everything will go right
  • Relationships - when you meet some conflicts with other people
  • Family problems - could be struggle with communication
  • Moving house - you think if everything will be alright
  • Bereavement - you need time to accept the new situation without important person. In this situation it is really difficult to help yourself or others     

For example: I was working with another person, who in my opinion did not work properly. I was feeling that it could be done in a better way. The person which I was working with had a higher level of NVQ than me, so I found difficult to resolve this problem. It was very stressful situation for me, because I wanted to do job properly - the best I can, but I could not to improve without other person. I was trying to find a solution, but I heard that my experience is too small and I should not to say what I am thinking. I was feel upset and angry and my well-being was not good. 

Sometimes we not sure what is causing our stress. A good idea is to keep a diary and make a note of stressful episodes. This help us to spot the triggers.

  1. Compare strategies for managing stress

There are some strategies to help us to manage stress. It is important to understand that no single method will work for everyone. When you trying to manage stress it is good to start with relaxation techniques, deep breathing and doing exercises. According to Professor Cary Cooper:

  • Be active - physical activity can help relieve stress and burn away anger, tension and frustration. Exercises make you feel good, give more energy and optimism.
  • Take control of your environment - for example if the evening news makes you anxious, just turn off the TV.
  • Connect with people - communication with others makes you feel safe and understood.
  • Have some ‘me time’ - try to find time only for you - time for fun and relaxation (go for a walk, spend time in nature, write, paint, take a long bath, play with pet, work in your garden, read a book, listen to a music, watch a comedy).
  • Do not rely on alcohol, smoking, caffeine - bad habits never help to resolve any problems.
  • Do some voluntary work - sometimes it is very good idea to do something for other people and what you really like to do.
  • Work smarter, not harder - try to do work more effectively by better organization all tasks
  • Be positive - try to find good side of every situation.
  • Accept things you cannot change - some of the stressful situation you can avoid, so the best way is to accept things as they are.

Sometimes these techniques are not enough and we have to looking for different ways to tackle stress. We can find some stress management group or class. The classes can help us to identify the cause of stress and develop effective techniques. It really useful to meet other people who have the same problem - feel stressed. When it is not enough for us, we can looking for some specialist who will be working with us one-by-one.

There are a lot of different techniques, who can be helpful. In my opinion is very important to do everything to avoid from taking medication. Sometimes it is enough to talk with someone else about our problems and how we are feel - it could be member of family or friend. Other people can help us to notice different point of view of our problem. We rather cannot prevent stress, but we can cope with it when we recognise and understand and know what to do.

Unit 8: Promote and implement health and safety in health and social care


Understand Health and Safety in Social Care Settings

1. Understand the Different Responsibilities Relating to Health and Safety in Social Care Setting

1.1. List legislation relating to general health and safety in a social care setting

There are a small number of legal acts relating to the general health and safety in social care. The primary piece of legislation covering occupational health and safety is the health and safety at work act of 1974 (HASAWA), it ensures that the employer and the employee have responsibilities to ensure that a good level of safety is attained in the workplace, and there should be a copy of this act on the works premises for use of any employee or service user. The main purpose of the legislation is:

  • To ensure the health, safety and welfare of people at work
  • To protect others from risks arising from the activities of people at work
  • To control the use and storage of dangerous substances
  • To control the emission into the atmosphere of noxious or offensive substances

Other legislation relating to health and safety in social care are as follows

  • The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, which supports the health and safety act.
  • The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (known as COSHH) which ensures safe storage and usage of any substances that could harm other workers or service users.
  • The Manual Handling Regulations of 1992 (amended 2002), which sets out methods and requirements to be met when manually handling objects, as well as people.
  • The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations  1995 (known as RIDDOR) outlines what is required to be recorded and reported.
  • Food safety act 1990
  • Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations (PPE) 1992
  • Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) 1998

1.2. Describe the main points of health and safety policies and procedures

The main points of health and safety policies and procedures largely centre on standards that must be supported in order to create a safe place of work, and also to ensure that the place of work meets all legislation requirements for example, considering COSHH, where all substances must be locked away while not in use, and not left around when being used if the worker leaves the room, even for a moment, that is if the level of work is to keep up with the standard required to maintain itself within the COSHH legislation. Or even simple things that don’t include any harmful substances, such as keeping entrances clear and ensuring that any fire exits are able to be opened in an emergency by undertaking health and safety checks on the release, as well as ensuring all nurse call buzzers work properly.

The policies and procedures ensure that all risk assessments are up to date and in place for all service users, to protect vulnerable groups, and that all members of staff are trained in necessary areas, such as manual handling and data protection, along with general things such as reporting faulty appliances or any needed maintenance and showing where it should be recorded and who it should be reported to. As well as having regular supervisions and staff meetings to inform them of any changes to the way the business operates in regards to health and safety.


1.3. Outline the main health and safety responsibilities of:

a) The social care worker

The social care worker responsibilities are to maintain any important care procedures, which refer to the policies and procedures, but most things do as they outline the ways in which things must be done, this includes attending any training. Health and safety responsibilities include other things such as making sure any activities are done safely, as well as the use of any equipment or materials to be handled with care, minimizing the risk of injury or harm to myself and others, including other staff and service users. If on occasion someone is hurt then I am to record and report it appropriately, even if it just a concern.

b) The employer or manager

The employer and manager have the responsibility to ensure that every member of staff understands their obligations towards health and safety policy, and that there are safe working methods and equipment in place to allow the employee’s to operate under it and so avoid injury, damage and wastage. This may include keeping enough stock of necessary equipment required, and not to charge for any PPE or first aid facilities. It is also the manager’s role to assess any existing risks and create ways to minimise them, and to provide training on health and safety.

c) Individuals

All other staff must follow all policies and procedures as the social care worker does, and any visitors, including doctors, relatives, nurses, OT specialists and contractors must follow all health and safety protocols, as well as recording and reporting health and safety related concerns or incidents.


1.4. Identify tasks relating to health and safety that should only be carried out with

special training

Any tasks that are hazardous for health and safety shouldn´t be carried out without specific training and may include those relating to:

  • Use of equipment (hoists and slings)
  • Clinical waste disposal
  • Handling chemical substances, such as cleaning equipment
  • Manual handling procedures (assisting and moving)
  • Food handling and preparation
  • Medication
  • First aid
  • Emergency procedures


1.5. Describe how to access additional support and information relating to health and safety

Additional support and information can be found on the Health and Safety executive´s website, where we can find all information and ask for advice and support. I can read a book that covers that part of health and safety such as the course workbooks that help me through this qualification. It can be attained by attending any training relating to health and safety, and as always information can be found in the company’s policies and procedures. There are members of staff that are responsible for certain areas of health and safety, for example the fire marshal can offer support and information regarding fires and how to operate certain equipment even out of training, and the same goes for any individual that has additional training in one part of the workplace.


2. Understand the Use of Risk Assessments in Relation to Health and Safety

2.1. Define what is meant by ‘hazard’ and ‘risk’

According to the health and safety authority a hazard is defined as ‘a potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or persons’ and a risk is defined as ‘the likelihood that a person may be harmed or suffers adverse health effects if exposed to a hazard’.

The example they use to contextualise the two is very clear and very helpful. ‘If there was a spill of water in a room then that water would present a slipping hazard to persons passing through it. If access to that area was prevented by a physical barrier then the hazard would remain though the risk would be minimised’.


2.2. Describe how to use a health and safety risk assessment

The purpose of assessing risk is to ensure the health, safety, welfare and security of staff, individual´s and the wider community. Risks that are identified will inform the way in which I work with the service users.

To properly use a health and safety risk assessment I must be able to identify hazards and evaluate the risks that hazard poses, for example when carrying out a risk assessment for someone’s room who uses a wheelchair, I may recognise the rug has a raised edge which could be a hazard to the person using a wheelchair when getting round his or her own room.

So there are five steps to risk assessment, those are:

  • Identify the hazards
  • Decide who might be harmed and how
  • Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions
  • Record my findings and implement them
  • Review the risk assessment and update if necessary


2.3. Explain how and when to report potential health and safety risks that have been identified

It is important to report any risks immediately as they are recognised, or when any additional measures are required, for example when any existing measures of hazard control are not enough this should be reported immediately because it creates a greater risk to a person’s health and safety.

As a carer I should watch out for my own health and safety as well as the health ans safety of the individual, other staff and visitors. And also cooperate with my manager or senior is primordial on health and safety issues, as well as trying to make sure that any PPE or other health and safety equipment is well kept and if it is damaged and a hazard presents itself, noting it down in the maintenance book or requesting more stock of something should be done immediately. If the problem cannot be dealt with by myself as a carer, then I should report the potential risk to a senior member of staff or the manager straightaway. For example if there is a wet floor and no wet floor sign, then mopping and placing a sign down can be handled by myself, but if there were a broken call bell then a senior member of staff and the maintenance staff should be notified of it as soon as possible. But also it should be written in the health and safety book.


2.4. Describe how risk assessment can help address dilemmas between an individual`s rights and health and safety concerns

Risk assessments can help address dilemmas between rights and health safety largely by making the individual, whether that be a service user or a member of staff aware of the risks that exist. For example if someone in a wheelchair who has a partial ability to walk is feeling discriminated against by not being allowed to walk somewhere unassisted, (it might be wet floor inside or perhaps it could be icy outside) then explaining the reasons behind persuading the use of a wheelchair is for their own safety, and that it is not a decision that even rests in your hands, helps break the dilemma he had concerning his rights as an individual, and also serve his own health and safety needs. Because it makes the service user aware of the carers responsibilities, and the reason behind the risk assessments is to keep people safe, and not to discriminate for any reason.


3. Understand Procedures for responding to Accidents and Sudden Illness

3.1. Describe different types of accidents and sudden illness that may occur in a social care setting

There are various ways accidents can occur, and with accidents we cannot completely prevent against them because they are accidental and even the highest level of work, and the most thought through risk assessments cannot completely eradicate human error.

So the accidents in my work setting are:

  • Back injuries by using the wrong manual handling techniques
  • Stomach upset by food poisoning by food stored wrongly
  • Slips and falls from wet floors
  • Burns or poisoning by hazardous substance (chemicals or desinfectants)
  • Tight chest by an infection
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Difficulty with breathing
  • Stroke
  • Hypoglycaemia
  • Seizures
  • Loss of consciousness


3.2. Outline the procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur

Procedures that should be followed if an accident or sudden illness occur at work are:

  • Record and report the accident or illness with full details (date, method of reporting, date, time, place, personal detail of those involved, description of the nature of the event or disease)
  • Registered person must submit notification to CQC and HSE
  • Inform individual’s next of kin

3.3. Explain why it is important for emergency first aid tasks only to be carried out by qualified first aiders

First aiders are called that for a reason, and they are the best suited for the job and so if they are available then it best to wait for them simply because it minimizes the risk of further injury or illness, and they can treat both illness and injury in the most effective way possible and in the long run it preserves life if a risk of the individual passing away exists. If an untrained person attempts the use equipment meant for medical use then they can do as much harm as they can do good, and it just isn’t safe for them to be using something they are not qualified to use. It also complies with health and safety standards and legislation, which will fall under the policies and procedures of the home.

On the time that we await for the first aid we can make the area safe and private as much as possible, when the trained person arrives we should help following their instructions.

4. Know How to Reduce the Spread of Infection

4.1. List routes by which an infection can get into the body

Infections are easily caught by the human body, as they are often hard to detect, possible routes include:

  • Respiratory (respirathory)
  • Digestive (drinking or eating)
  • Blood circulation (insect bites)
  • Body Fluids (broken skin)

Without listing a whole lot of subcategories these are the main points of entry, even though there are only four there are many variations on each method, like breathing for example, the infection could be naturally occurring in the air like pollen or something, though someone could sneeze or cough next to you, or a harmful spray could be discharged in the air such as pesticide or paint.

4.2. Describe ways in which own health or hygiene might pose a risk to an individual or to others at work

Personal hygiene is a huge part of being a care assistant, and making sure you keep up on your own health and cleanliness makes dealing with the service users a lot more respectful and polite. But it’s much more than just politeness or for personal reasons, lots of different illnesses can be transferred through physical contact, and even though PPE is used for infection control, it cannot stop everything. Airborne illnesses can be transferred through sneezing and coughing. Poor hygiene such as inadequate hand washing and dirty or contaminated fabrics pose a huge threat, becoming especially dangerous when the service user has an already diminishing immune system, in rare cases your own health and hygiene can cause serious illness or infection, even fatalities.

4.3. Explain the most thorough method for hand washing

The hand washing method has five steps; wet, soap, wash, rinse, dry.

The most effective way of hand washing is:

  • Apply a squirt of liquid soap on hands
  • Rub hands together under a running tap to form a lather
  • Wash around fingers and thumbs
  • Interlock hands and rub finger tips in the palm of the hands
  • Move over to wash the back of the hands
  • Rinse the soap from the hands
  • Dry hands with a disposable paper towel

Part of the method as well is wash them frequently, before and after every contact with an individual, including any task that involves bodily fluids or clinical waste such as removing or replacing the pad bags.

4.4. Describe when to use different types of personal protective equipment

PPE is used throughout the day as a carer, but specifically the times to use some would be during any type of personal care, to ensure infection control as it provides a barrier to any bodily fluids such as sweat. Whenever I touch any waste, such as the clinical waste bags to protect myself against what I am carrying. Also whenever you change tasks that need PPE to avoid cross contamination and to protect against other contaminants and infections, for example when I aid someone with toileting I cannot risk then opening the door and carrying the used pad bag to the clinical waste bin without changing the gloves and apron I am wearing  in case any of the service users bodily fluids get on the handle, which could mean that everyone who touched that handle to get into the bathroom would catch the illness that the service user might have.

5. Know How to Move and Handle Equipment and Other Objects Safely

5.1. Identify legislation that relates to moving and handling

As usual there is legislation in place to ensure that the moving and handling of equipment and other objects is done safely.

The Manual Handling Regulations 1992 (amended 2002) were introduced to reduce the number of injuries from moving and handling activities (pushing, pulling, lifting, moving, putting down, carrying by hand or bodily any goods, equipment and people).

The lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) 1998, were introduced to minimise risks from lifting equipment (hoist and slings).

5.2. List principles for safe moving and handling

The main principles behind safe moving and handling include:

  • Avoiding any hazardous manual handling,
  • Adhering to the requirements of any risk assessments in place
  • Reporting any difficulties, including injuries and accidents appropriately
  • Using equipment properly and safely, while adhering to the agreed ways of working
  • Using the proper techniques and methods of work, taught in manual handling course.

5.3. Explain why it is important for moving and handling tasks to be carried out following specialist training

Before anyone should get involved with a task involving moving any type of heavy equipment then they have to comply with current legislation and the agreed ways of working, this means to attend training in manual handling before taking on any tasks that involve it.

Having the specialist training for moving and handling minimises the risk of injury to yourself and others, insuring that equipment like steps or ladders are used properly, because without the right techniques they can cause as much harm as they can do good. For example if a service user wanted a picture frame taken down from his or her room, then not knowing how to properly use a step ladder could lead to injuring yourself or even the service user in the room at the time.

Having the training and understanding of the policies and procedures of the home safeguards your own health and safety as well as the health and safety of others, and makes it easier to apply agreed ways of working within your own practice.

6. Understand the Principles of Assisting and Moving an Individual

6.1. Explain why it is important to have specialist training before assisting and moving an individual

Specialist training is again very important when assisting or moving an individual as without it their needs and preferences cannot be meet, and without that you cannot work to a standard that meets the agreed ways of working. As a result you may not comply with the policies and procedures of the home and in most cases that would mean you may well be breaking the law.

Specialist training help us to understand a service user needs and preferences as well as meet them, in understanding their needs we can learn to make them more comfortable and easy when being moved or assisted, as someone’s dignity is very easily damaged. Showing that I understand someone as well as know what I am doing means that they might trust me further, leading to a better working relationship which often makes it easier to work with an individual and minimise any injury to the individual and to myself.

Along with meeting their health and safety requirements by moving the individual safely and correctly, like using a sling in an appropriate way, without the specialist training it would be very easy to fit it incorrectly and used in that way a hoist and sling can do far more harm than good, with possibility of injury from a service user falling from the sling, or it being too tight and causing injury from pinching or rubbing on them.

6.2. Explain the importance of following an individual`s care plan and fully engaging with them when assisting and moving

An individual’s care plan, which is a document where detailed information is kept to help aid an individual, this can include a day to day list of requirements, next of kin contact information, medical history, preferences, and a general background as a whole. Care plans also ensure the individual has personalised details of how best to support them is known by other names such as a support plan or individuals care document.

 Following an individual’s care plan ensures that their need and preferences are understood, allowing you to meet them more easily and work within the individuals comfort zone if possible. The care plan helps any carer move the individual safely and correctly, and guides you on how to best involve the individual in the process, so they feel like an active participant in what they are doing, and not like there just a sack of spuds. For example explaining what might be best for them to do next instead of telling them to lift their arms up to install the sling is much better because it lets the service user think for a moment about what’s going on, and preserves a part of their independence which is closely linked to their self-esteem.

Following the care plan and agreed ways of working while communicating with the service user helps to minimise the risk of injury to the individual or to yourself and others, because they will never be taken by surprise, and they will hopefully feel more comfortable during the move as a result. They are as much a part of the process as you are and they will often know what to do when any assisting or manual handling is required.

7. Know How to Handle Hazardous Substances

7.1. Identify hazardous substances that may be found in the social care setting

Some of the hazardous substances and materials that may be found in a social care setting could include any cleaning materials, such as disinfectant that can easily cause injury to the skin as most useful disinfectant is an irritant, all found in the COSHH cupboard for use of the cleaners. The clinical and bodily waste bags in the clinical waste bins are very harmful, and are emptied twice a day and cleaned because of this. Also the medication or drugs can all be found locked away in the medication cupboard which is locked, then that key is locked away as well in a different room to avoid anyone gaining entry that does not have permission.

7.2. Describe safe practices for:

Storing hazardous substances

Safe practices for storing hazardous substances include having them kept in a clocked cupboard, where no unauthorised person can access them. Making sure they are properly labelled is very important as unmarked containers could be easily used incorrectly and the improper substance could cause injury to anyone involved. Also making sure that the substances are kept in acceptable conditions is important, for example some medication is required to be chilled, and so keeping them in a secure and locked fridge would be the only way to secure them safely and to keep them working as well as they possibly can.

Using hazardous substances

All hazardous substances should be handled with care, this includes reading the on the label before use, never mixing different substances together, as this can cause very noxious gases and damage you or anyone in the vicinity. You should also only use a substance if you have been trained to do so, which includes using the proper PPE like rubber or latex gloves when using general cleaners as some chemicals can be absorbed through the skin and cause injury or illness. Also, if you encounter any difficulties when using a product then it should be reported immediately to the appropriate person and recorded in the accident book if necessary. And know where any possibly needed first aid equipment is before beginning a task involving hazardous substances.

Disposing of hazardous substances

Care homes and residential homes should all have a COSHH protection file with guidelines on how to dispose of any kept substances that are hazardous to health, such as clinical waste disposal in marked sealed yellow bags. Used sharps such as needles should be placed in the yellow sharps box and used or out of date medication should be collected or delivered to the pharmacist for proper disposal.



8. Know Environmental Safety Procedures in the Social Care Setting

8.1. Outline procedures to be followed in the social care setting to prevent:


Lots of things can be done to prevent fires, and most are common sense, such as not having fire door propped open and checking that appliances and plugs are turned off. Not smoking is a major contributor to fire prevention, but that’s not always as easy as it sounds within a care home of smokers, though having a smoke room rather than having people smoke in their rooms is a major step in the right direction. There is usually a fire procedure in every home, so finding that and adhering to the directions it has also helps.

Gas leak

Gas leaks are very dangerous, and so all appliances should be checked when switching them off, that includes gas fires, cookers and heaters. Making sure you understand how to properly use the equipment is also very important, we need to know how to properly switch something off, and when using gas appliances, gas leaks can occur when switching them on too, so having the knowledge to use them safely goes a long way.


Knowing how to prevent flooding isn’t something you would often think about, but with so much plumbing in a residential home leaks and flooding are a real possibility. Being aware of how to turn off the main water supply is crucial, and turning all taps off after use, as well gas making sure plugs are unplugged in case of leaks or drips leading to overflow.


Intruding is when someone physically puts them self in a place where they are not welcome or allowed. To prevent someone that is not `welcome´ we should be vigilant about the building security by seeing if the door or doors are properly closed, follow a procedure checklist and do not give out the key safe codes.

Security Breaches

A security breach is where information which is kept private and secure has been accessed deliberately by someone who is unauthorised to do so. We should follow a procedure checklist, be vigilant about the building security by seeing if any door or windows are open, if suspicious of something wrong we need to report any concerns.


8.2. Outline procedures to be followed in the social care setting in the event of:


As soon as we notice a signal of fire, we should raise the alarm, dial 999 or inform health and safety officer or manager immediately, go to fire assembly point and move myself and the others away from danger area if safe to do and record the incident.

Gas leak

As soon as we notice a signal of gas leak, we should dial 999 or inform health and safety officer or manager immediately, don´t turn any switches on/off, go to assembly point, immediately move myself and others away from the building and record the incident.


As soon as we notice a signal of flood, we should turn off the main water supply, dial 999 or inform health and safety officer or manager immediately, don´t turn any switches on/off, go to assembly point, move myself and others away from the building immediately and record the incident.


As soon as notice a signal of intruding, we should dial 999, inform health and safety officer or manager immediately, move myself and the others to a safe area if possible and record the incident.

Security breach

As soon as notice a signal of security breach, we should dial 999, inform health and safety officer or manager immediately, move myself and the others from the building and record the incident.



9. Know How to Manage Stress

9.1. Identify common signs and indications of stress

Stress is the way that we feel when too much pressure is placed on us. Stress can have positive as well negative effects. A little bit of pressure can be positive, productive and motivating, but too much pressure can lead to negative stress. It is unhealthy for the mind and body. In many cases, too much stress often leads to physical, mental and emotional problems.

Common signs and indicators of stress include:

  • Feeling more tearful or sensitive
  • Loss of motivation
  • Changes in sleep patterns
  • Changes in eating habits
  • Concentration/indecisiveness
  • Clammy/cold hands
  • Work-a-holism/absenteeism
  • Irrationality
  • Forgetfulness
  • Churning stomach/butterflies
  • Pins and needles
  • Negativity
  • Indigestion/abdominal pain
  • Over sensitivity
  • Insomnia/tiredness
  • Loss of sense of humour
  • Feeling isolated and cut off
  • Dry mouth/difficulty swallowing
  • Pounding head/headaches
  • Depression
  • Palpitations
  • Faintness
  • Loss of libido
  • Feeling pressured
  • Mental lethargy
  • Chest pain
  • Panic attacks
  • Palpitations/rapid pulse
  • Increased reliance on substances, e.g. alcohol, cigarettes or drugs.


9.2. Identify circumstances that tend to trigger own stress

Circumstances that tend to trigger stress include:

  • Long, unsociable hours or shift work
  • Work overload/under-load
  • New technology
  • Repetition
  • Danger of injury or infection
  • Difficult relationships at work
  • Closed, negative policies
  • Level of involvement in decision making
  • Lack of autonomy or control
  • Rapid, substantial change
  • Poor communication at all levels


9.3. Describe ways to manage stress

Strategies to manage stress may include:

  • Do one thing at the time/slow down
  • Take up a new hobby or sport
  • Don´t clock watch
  • Don´t put things off
  • Learn to say `no`
  • Reward myself
  • Take a 20 minutes’ walk
  • Delegate work to others
  • Accept myself
  • Separate work from home
  • Keep a perspective about work
  • Take exercise
  • Take some deep breaths
  • Stretch my muscles
  • Talking through my line manager saying how do I feel
  • Attending any stress management courses available.

10. Understand Procedures Regarding Handling Medication

10.1. Describe the main points of agreed procedures about handling medication

Handling medication may include:

  • Ordering – having a designed person for ordering medication
  • Receiving – all medication received must be checked and recorded
  • Storage – medication must be stored securely and under correct condition line with manufacturer’s instructions
  • Administration – Identify the correct individual, medication, time and special instructions when giving medication
  • Recording – record immediately when individual has taken the medication
  • Disposal – dispose of unwanted or discontinued medication safely


10.2. Identify who is responsible for medication in a social care setting

Everyone involved in the care of a service user is responsible for ensuring that his or her medication is managed appropriately where the service user is not self-medicating. However the primary responsibility for the prescription and medication review rests with the prescriber in consultation with other members of the primary care team and his/her patient.

Medicines prescribed by a Doctor/Nurse/Pharmacist prescriber and dispensed by a Pharmacist become the property of the person to whom they have been prescribed.

Care Workers will only provide help with taking medication, or administer medication, with the informed consent of the service user or their relative or representative who may give consent on the service user’s behalf.


10.3. Explain why medication must only be handled following specialist training

The medication must only be handled for those how have specialist training to comply with legislation, to ensure it is administrated safely and correctly as workers are accountable for their actions. To ensure that the medication is handled properly that the correct dosage is given and to make sure that the medication is only given to the person it is intended for. Also a person who is not trained will not know what side effects can occur or the signs of an allergic reaction, this could lead to disciplinary action and could also lead to legal action which would give the service provider a bad reputation and could end up with the suspension of the providers licence or even the closure of the care setting.



11. Understand How to Handle and Store Food Safely

11.1. Identify food safety standards relevant to a social care setting

The five key principles of food hygiene, according to World Health Organization (WHO), are:

  • Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests
  • Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods
  • Temperature to kill pathogens
  • Store food at the proper temperature
  • Do use safe water and cooked materials


11.2. Explain how to:

Store food

Fridge storage - Some foods need to be kept in the fridge to help stop bacteria growing. These include foods with a "use-by" date, cooked foods and ready-to-eat foods such as desserts and cooked meats. Here`s how to prevent bacteria from growing:

  • keep your fridge temperature below 5°C
  • when preparing food, keep it out of the fridge for the shortest time possible
  • if you`re having a buffet, keep the food refrigerated until you`re ready to serve it
  • cool down leftovers as quickly as possible (within 90 minutes), store them in the fridge and eat them within two days
  • store eggs in their box in the fridge
  • never put open cans in the fridge, as the metal may transfer to the can`s contents - place the contents in a storage container or covered bowl instead

`Use-by` dates - No food lasts forever, however well it is stored. Most pre-packed foods carry either a "use-by" or a "best before" date.

  • "Use-by" dates appear on foods that go off quite quickly. It can be dangerous to eat foods past this date
  • "Best before" dates are for foods with a longer life. They show how long the food will be at its best quality.

Storing meat - It`s particularly important to store meat safely in the fridge to stop bacteria from spreading and avoid food poisoning.

  • store raw meat and poultry in clean, sealed containers on the bottom shelf of the fridge, so they can`t touch or drip onto other food
  • follow any storage instructions on the label and don`t eat meat after its use-by date
  • keep cooked meat separate from raw meat

Freezing and defrosting - It`s safe to freeze meat and fish as long as you:

  • freeze it before the use-by date
  • defrost meat and fish thoroughly before cooking - lots of liquid will come out as meat thaws, so stand it in a bowl to stop bacteria in the juice spreading to other things
  • defrost meat and fish in a microwave if you intend to cook it straightaway, or put it in the fridge to thaw so it doesn`t get too warm
  • cook food until it`s piping hot all the way through

Re-freezing - Never re-freeze raw meat (including poultry) or fish that has been defrosted. It is possible to re-freeze cooked meat once, as long as it has been cooled before going into the freezer. But if in doubt, don`t re-freeze. Frozen raw foods can be defrosted once and stored in the fridge for up to two days before they need to be cooked or thrown away. To reduce wastage, divide the meal into portions before freezing and then just defrost what you need. Cooked food that has been frozen and removed from the freezer must be reheated and eaten immediately once fully defrosted. When defrosted, food should be reheated only once, because the more times you cool and reheat food, the higher the risk of food poisoning. Bacteria can grow and multiply when food is cooled too slowly, and might survive if food isn`t reheated properly.

Re-using bags - With more and more people re-using carrier bags, whether for environmental reasons or to avoid paying for new ones, the following tips will help prevent bacteria spreading to ready-to-eat food:

  • Keep raw meat and fish separate from ready-to-eat foods in separate bags
  • If you use re-useable bags, keep one or two just for use with raw meat and fish and don`t use the same bags for ready-to-eat foods
  • Re-useable bags (and single-use carrier bags) should be disposed of if there are spillages of raw meat juices.

Maximise hygiene when handling food

  • Food handlers must wear headgear that confines the hair. Hair nets, chef’s hats and baseball caps are acceptable headgear. The hair must be confined to prevent hair from falling into the food and to stop food handlers from touching their hair to move it out of their face. Hair has also been known to cross-contaminate food.
  • Food handlers must wear clean clothing and change aprons as often as necessary.
  • Do not wear uniforms outside of the establishment. Always change and hang clothes in the change room, never in the kitchen or food storage areas.
  • Food handlers are not to handle food if they are ill with Diarrhoea, coughing or sneezing.
  • Food handlers must not handle food if they have open cuts on their hands or are wearing Band-Aids.
  • Food handlers must have trimmed nails and wear no jewellery when preparing food.
  • Food handlers must be aware of their bad habits such as biting nails, touching their face especially around the mouth, nose and eyes.

Dispose of food

  • Waste disposal bins are to be placed around the working area of food preparation rooms and positioned conveniently to staff and operations
  • Waste disposal bins are clearly distinguishable from other storage bins
  • Waste disposal bins in food preparation rooms need not be covered if they are in frequent use and are regularly emptied. Preferably, use bins with a pedal
  • A defined area is to be allocated for the storage of waste pending disposal
  • When food waste is removed from food preparation rooms pending disposal, it must be placed in a tightly covered waste storage bin
  • Plastic liners are to be used in waste disposal and storage bins
  • Waste disposal and storage bins are to be emptied when full or on a regular basis
  • Waste disposal bins are to be cleaned and sanitised daily and placed upside down and off the floor to drain overnight


11.3. Identify common hazards when handling and storing food

Biological hazard - There are a number of different types of biological hazards that can be present within food. These are typically microorganisms and include bacteria, viruses and parasites.

Chemical hazard - There are different types of chemical hazards associated with food: naturally-occurring chemicals intentionally-added chemicals unintentional or incidental chemical additives.

Physical hazard- is any potential harmful extraneous matter not normally found in food. They are different to biological or chemical hazards: they generally cause problems for relatively few consumers per incident. The result of personal injuries is usually not life-threatening but can cause considerable personal distress to the consumer. Typical examples are broken teeth, cut mouths, and choking. In food safety management systems, hazards refer to conditions or contaminants in foods that can cause illness or injury. It is important to understand that hazards do not refer to undesirable conditions or contaminants such as:

  • presence of insects
  • spoilage
  • hair or dirt
  • Violations of regulatory food standards not directly related to safet


UNIT 7 Understand person centred Approaches in adult social care settings

1. Understand Person-Centred approaches for Care and Support

1.1. Define person centred values

This is to ensure that an individual are at the centre of planning and support, upholding and promoting individuality, choice, dignity, privacy, rights, respect, independence and partnership.

1.2. Explain why it is important to work in a way that embeds person-centred values

It is important we work in this way in order to promote individuality, this allow individuals to make informed decisions and choices, as well as understand the consequences as well as possible risks of such decisions and choice that may well relate to their own health and wellbeing.  We must do this within the appreciation of rights within the care value base. We can uphold this by empowering individuals to maintain their own independence. Each individual should have the right to privacy which encourages that person to maintain dignity and self-respect.  Whilst respecting the individual diversity cultures and values.

2. Understand How to Implement a Person-Centred Approach in an Adult Social Care Setting

2.1. Describe how to find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of an individual

We could find out such information relating to an individual by working in a way that puts the individual at the centre of any planning and support, we can do this be communicating with them to find out about their history, preferences and wishes. It is important that we appear and work in a non-judgemental way in order to eliminate any prejudices and/or personal feelings as to not discriminate in any way against the individual. By promoting independence and autonomy, we can also ensure equality and inclusive practice.

We can do this by actively encouraging and thus empowering individuals to use their strengths and potentials. Effective communication and confidentiality is also vitally important as this ensures equality.

2.2. Describe how to take into account the history, preferences, wishes and needs of an individual when planning care and support

When planning individual support, it is necessary to document and record day to day requirements of the individual’s preferences for care and support. We can do this by addressing individual needs and preferences within a care plan, as well as individual support plans. Having a holistic approach to meeting the needs and preferences of each individual is also a key skill.

2.3. Explain how using an individual’s care plan contributes to working in a person-centred way

We are able to work in a person centred way with the contribution of using an individual’s care plane by consulting the individuals, ensuring needs are met, and they maintain empowerment by doing so.  We can do this by documenting and recording individual needs, attending to any details of treatment and individualised provisions as set out in care plans. Implementing non-discriminatory practice and applying a person centred approach whilst doing so.

3. Understand the Importance of Establishing Consent When Providing Care or Support

3.1. Define the term “Consent”

Consent is the informed agreement to an action and/or decision. To establish consent would be to be given permission and / or approval on such actions and / or decisions. This would vary depending on the individuals assessed capacity to consent.

3.2 Explain the importance of gaining consent when providing care or support.

It is important to uphold an individual’s rights to be fully involved in their own care, whilst adhering to legal requirements; as it is also the individual’s right to refuse such care or treatment, and ensuring the individual are aware and comply with legal requirements.

3.3 Describe how to establish consent for an activity or action.

Good communication skills, verbal and non – verbal as well as written consent, as well as active listening, play a key role when gaining consent. The use of appropriate information

3.4  Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established.

Whilst complying with legal requirements, and abiding by relevant legislation we must act in the best interests of the individual, work towards solving conflicts, with the use of extra support, such as an advocate if necessary.  And where appropriate to contact the person whom has legal responsibility. We also must record such information

Unit 8: Promote and implement health and safety in health and social care

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